How do we transform finance to cope with constant change? One word; Collaboration!

From Steve Player, North America Program Director for the Beyond Budgeting Round Table (BBRT)

Throughout my ten part blog series I have been discussing how CFOs can use new technologies to help leverage the finance team in providing greater organizational value. In the capstone summary I also wanted to note that underlying each of the changes discussed is a theme of greater collaboration.

Businessman and businesswoman using digital tablet in office

In many ways technology is enabling this collaboration. But your speed of adoption will increase if you start with a spirit of collaboration before any implementation begins:

  • A strong CFO looks to collaborate with his or her key lieutenants. More effective plans are developed when everyone is looking to optimize the whole organization.
  • A strong corporate finance team looks for ways to team with the business units they support. How can information be shared across units to make the whole stronger than the individual parts?
  • Strong finance teams also look to gain advantage by teaming up and down the value stream. For instance, the concept of eliminating duplicate data entry extends up and down the value stream. Why re-key a key vendor’s data or ask your customer to re-key yours?

New technologies such as integrated planning modules are leveraging collaborative work flows which are often imbedded into the design of new modules. These systems provide real time status of work flow which can be tracked automatically. Group messaging and polling functions facilitate online dialogues which can be happening with people around the globe. Joint work efforts can be tracked by automated audit trails maintaining change history. Teams can access the organization’s knowledge bases though on-line content management systems – anytime, anywhere. Even security concerns are better addressed as prepackaged solutions build in the security checks.

Old approaches that relied on linked spreadsheets had finance teams constantly trying to validate if they were working on the right numbers. Past surveys [1] have estimated that FP&A teams spend 47% of their time collecting and validating date. They spend another 30% of their time administering the planning process. As a result, they only have 23% of their time to do any real value added planning work. The new technologies we are discussing (mobile, in-memory, predictive analytics, and cloud) can flip this equation leaving finance teams free to focus just on collaborating and doing real planning work.

In addition to collaboration, success with these new technologies requires three key elements. The first is leadership and whether they are willing to explore new ways that finance can improve organizational value. This is likely a CFO who is looking to have greater impact. The second is an organization with a willingness to change. In addition to collaborating, there also needs to be an openness to what is possible. This leads to the third element which is experimentation. As Peter Drucker advised, systemic innovation “consists in the purposeful and organized search for changes, and in the systemic analysis of the opportunities such changes might offer for economic or social innovation.” [2]

Whether you are a CFO or just someone in looking to add greater value, ask yourself these questions:

  1. What changes should we be making to expand the value our finance team creates?
  2. How should our planning, budgeting and forecasting process change to take advantage of the next generation planning tools already here?
  3. How can in-memory computing help us harness Big Data for greater insights?
  4. What predictive analytics will provide us with greater lead time for improving?
  5. How can we better reach our strategies by aligning our execution efforts? What should be dropped to create capacity for what needs to be added?
  6. Which customers provide our current profitability? How will that change in the future?
  7. How can we improve the return on all expenditures?
  8. How can we eliminate wastes by moving to real time consolidation?
  9. How can we increase our response times using real time close and disclose approaches?
  10. How can finance improve collaboration?

Finally, how can finance find the time to pursue these goals? That begins with your leadership and identifying dumb stuff you are currently doing that should stop. I hope this series of blogs have helped get you started.

[1] See joint studies by APQC/ Beyond Budgeting Round Table (BBRT) and by Business Finance Magazine and BBRT. See “The Budget (1922 – 2009) Is Dead” by Jack Sweeney, Business Finance magazine, June 1, 2009.
[2] Drucker, Peter, Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Practices and Principles, (New York: Harper & Row) 1985, page 35.

Steve Player

Integrating Financial Analytics with Operational Transfer Pricing to Optimize After-Tax Profitability – Part Two

From Rob Jenkins, SAP Global Center of Excellence

In my previous blog, I discussed a variety of financial planning and tax modeling requirements and the disparate analytic tools finance teams are using to achieve their objective of partnering with the business to optimize decision making. Today, I want to discuss the rise (again) of profitability and cost management software.

For more than 20 years, profitability and cost management software has served a niche in finance and operations where organizations needed to model complex business rules of cost assignment, attribution and allocation in multiple process steps using driver volumes and multi-dimensional views. These data inputs often include financial values and non-financial measures by department, account, process, customer and/or product components in multiple layers all the way down to the bill-of-materials.

Gartner refers to this application space as Profitability Modeling and Optimization (PM&O) – part of corporate or enterprise performance management. These enterprise applications enable business users to use a point and click interface to rapidly build profitability and/or cost models and leverage built-in reports and OLAP (online analytical processing) multi-dimensional database for storage. Originally developed for activity-based costing purposes in the 1990’s, these PM&O applications have been adapted over the years to enable any methodology of complex revenue or expense allocation using a multi-dimensional database environment.

Organizations can transform source financial data where revenue and expense are typically captured in disparate dimensions into aligned, common dimensions. For example, revenue is captured by product and customer in a billing system whereas most expense is captured in the financial system by responsibility center without direct linkage to “market-facing dimensions.”

This transformation can incorporate robust rule sets that are visually depicted and easily maintained while accommodating large data sets. These types of models would be onerous to build, document, and maintain in spreadsheet software or would require IT to build a custom OLAP application with user interfaces and reporting tools.

Planning systems can be configured to import actual data and apply complex rule sets though the interface and dimensional data model are not pre-configured for multi-step, activity-based cost allocation purposes.

Integrating Planning Systems with Profitability and Tax Impact Modeling
PM&O applications can easily handle integrating budget, forecast or other scenario data using the version dimension. This enables alignment of planned financial data with actual results for revenue and cost following the mapping from resource center or account to process all the way to customer, product or other business dimension. Planned data can include financial data and driver-volumes or different capacity estimates if changes in operations or efficiencies are targeted.

PM&O applications have seen a recent resurgence given the applicability to modeling detailed operational transfer pricing rules. These rules are structurally very similar to activity-based methods and include robust, multi-step, driver-based allocation of shared cost pools along with the capability to model the detailed supply chain process steps and the tax impact based on jurisdiction, rates, etc

These applications can provide one integrated financial modeling solution that serves both FP&A and corporate tax enabling collaboration on inputs, rules and a single source of truth. With the proper configuration, an implementation team can create an accurate, documented view of pre-tax product / customer margin based on the true “economic map” of the business along with a tax-impacting process view of transfer prices, debt location, IP royalties and passive income.

The calculations can include actual results and “what-if” scenarios for the executive team to strategically organize global resources and operations.

So while taxes are a certainty, corporations will continue to deploy capital to maximize after-tax return on investment and finance organizations will be able to continue to use technology to be a strategic partner in modeling decisions and optimizing outcomes.

I’d like to hear your thoughts…where do you see financial analytics software heading given the convergence of planning, profitability and operational transfer pricing?

Is Your Finance Organization a Big Data Dinosaur?

Coffee-break with GameChangers

By now, every finance executive is hyper-aware of the bevy of business intelligence tools that help collect and analyze Big Data – but many are just not equipped to leverage them. First, they need to grasp fundamental planning points by rethinking the approach to data and finance’s role in the business.

In a recent SAP Game-Changers radiocast, Gary Cokins, founder of Analytics-Based Performance Management; Jon Essig, CPA with Optimal Solutions; and Rob Jenkins, global finance technology leader at SAP, offered advice on how to predict profitable performance in challenging times.

You can’t solve a problem you don’t understand

All panellists agree that there is a distinct resistance to change in the finance world – and this makes organizations ill-equipped to deal with emerging data challenges posed by innovative technology.

According to Cokins, “We need to close what I consider the wide gap between the CFO and the CMO, because the key is marketing has to answer the question: What types of customers do we basically retain, do we grow, do we win back, do we acquire? We are going to have to see that gap gets closed by finance and accounting function providing more and better information about customer profitability levels.”

Essig thinks there is a good chance at closing that gap, since tools are getting easier to use and require less expertise. The new workforce is also more comfortable interfacing with new technology.

Jenkins, however, still sees data interpretation as a big stretch in finance. “Getting to a fully absorbed profit view by product or by customer takes a lot more judgment and a lot more imagination and it really is worth the effort, but we don’t see a lot of firms doing that.” The fundamental issue is figuring out what to do with all the data to make it valuable and improve planning and forecasting.

Take the risk on technology

Essig believes that the next few years will bring the risk-averse finance sector further along in software investment. As tools become more available and cost-effective, “You no longer need the higher teams of the consultants and data scientists to come out and invest hugely in a project to benefit from these tools.”

According to Jenkins, you can achieve a near-forensic view of product and customer profitability with increased computing power that proves its merit in the form of improved decision making.

One implication of such a shift could mean the end of the dreaded annual budget. Instead, progressive economics and management accounting pave the way for rolling forecasts at more frequent intervals, providing a fresh perspective.

As a new era of tech-savvy CFOs is ushered in, technology will be seen as an enabler instead of a barrier. What do you think are the possibilities once this shift is completed? Listen to the full radiocast for more details.

Integrating Financial Analytics with Operational Transfer Pricing to Optimize After-Tax Profitability – Part 1

From Rob Jenkins, SAP Global Center of Excellence

Benjamin Franklin once noted “In this world nothing can be said to be certain, except death and taxes.” Finance professionals must deal with uncertainty as they model the future and partner with the business to optimize decision making. And while taxes are a certainty, tax jurisdiction and therefore tax rates are a function of how and where a business process is executed and assumptions made by the business. And those assumptions should be well documented for regulatory agencies.

Every for-profit entity’s objective is to deploy capital to maximize the after-tax return on investment. This requires a tight collaboration between financial planning and analysis (FP&A) and corporate tax functions to provide insight into the past and potential economic profit of products and customers and the available possibilities of organizing operations to maximize after-tax profit.

Many companies are in the news for performing “tax inversions” as part of a strategic acquisition of a non-US-based entity due to U.S. rates now exceeding the simple average of other OECD nations by 14.1 points and the GDP-weighted average by 10 points. [1]

Modeling After-Tax Financial Impact of Business Operations
Given the disparity in global tax rates, process and asset location along with transfer prices can have significant impact on after-tax income. Various operating scenarios can result in “profit shifting” among tax regimes and the business analyst can calculate the impact on statutory results by modeling the following:

  • Whether a business activity is active or passive
  • Where activities occur including R&D and “management”
  • The location of intellectual property
  • Placement of debt and borrowing costs (thin capitalization rules)
  • Transfer pricing (inter-company pricing arrangements between related business entities)

Choosing the Right Tool for the Task
A variety of tools are available to enable business users to estimate financial outcomes based on input variables and assumptions about their systemic relationships.

Spreadsheet technology is ubiquitous in finance for ad hoc modeling with some companies building complex, interdependent workbooks with macros for automation and detailed documentation for knowledge management, while others rely on a single subject matter expert to maintain the “black box”. These webs of interconnected cells and sheets are notorious for their error rates and hardwiring with one study finding “errors of at least 5% were found in 91% of all spreadsheets with more than 150 rows.” [2]

My previous blog post, Big Data for Finance, referenced how Big Data and analytics can be utilized to model the future based on historical data relationships and advanced analytic algorithms – though few finance organizations have yet to embrace the suite of predictive analytic tools now targeted at the business user.

Managing the Scope of Planning, Budgeting and Forecasting Systems
However, most finance organizations are using enterprise software applications for planning, budgeting, and forecasting with a large number of firms incorporating driver-based techniques for quantifying revenue forecasts and gross margin (for example, estimated product volume x selling price and standard cost for cost of goods sold).

For planning indirect operating expense including the cost to acquire, serve, and retain customers, the vast majority of companies budget expenses by function, responsibility center, and account, and rely on streamlined allocations to create a pre-tax operating margin view with most management attention focused on “controllable margin.”

These enterprise planning systems are extremely valuable for gathering inputs from decentralized sources, managing workflow, recording audit trails, aggregating actual results, calculating budget variances and reporting multi-dimensional financial statements for management.

Since FP&A teams are traditionally focused on financial reporting aligned with GAAP or IFRS requirements, these planning systems are rarely configured to calculate the detailed dynamics of how hundreds or thousands of shared indirect labor or overhead cost pools are attributed (sometimes in multiple steps) to products or customers based on usage-based drivers or activity-based methods.

Nor do these systems typically account for the tax impact of supply chain logistics, asset location, and transfer prices. Complex driver-based attributions and operational transfer pricing have been the province of cost accounting and tax accounting, respectively, and rely on specific techniques, operational data sets and levels of detail not ordinarily integrated into corporate planning systems.

The result is that most FP&A and tax teams use separate systems to plan and model pre-tax economics at a high-level vs. a granular view of profitability by customer and product vs. the tax impact of how business operations are organized.

So, what’s the solution? In my next blog, I will discuss operational transfer pricing and the rise (again) of profitability and cost management software. Stay tuned!

[1] Tax Foundation, OECD Corporate Income Tax Rates, 1981-2011, http://taxfoundation.org/article/oecd-corporate-income-tax-rates-1981-2011.

[2] http://www.isaca.org/Journal/Past-Issues/2007/Volume-1/Documents/jopdf0606-controlling-spread.pdf

 

The Power of Connection

From Craig Himmelberger, SAP

In my earlier “Power of Connection” blog article on SCN, I wrote about the great opportunities that exist to make valuable connections between the better insights found in our treasury systems, and the policies and procedures of various operational working capital systems.

Following on from my earlier thoughts on this subject, just one month ago SAPPHIRENOW 2014 gave me opportunity to reflect on how far technology has come in a very short time, since “HANA” and “Cloud” were just buzzwords and not yet the center of corporate boardroom conversation. I was joined in a Treasury Solutions demo theater by colleagues from our Ariba and Financial Services Network solution teams. I was pretty excited, as SAP Cash Management powered by SAP HANA was being given its proper SAPPHIRE debut, with full demonstration of the Fiori dashboard user interface (beautiful!) and the practically instant return of in-depth analytical content related to cash positions and anticipated liquidity requirements.

See the future taking place
You know how you read all about something and you think you know it pretty well? I had seen the conceptual walkthroughs of the full Cloud networked solution, complete with the Ariba buyer/supplier portal and the Cloud-based corporate-to-bank connectivity within the SAP Financial Services Network, but I was hardly prepared for the experience of seeing it all together as if for the first time. When you’re used to the beauty of each one of the parts individually, it’s not always easy to take a step back and see the future taking place right in front of your eyes.

Know what’s needed, and when
Seconds after producing a comprehensive cash requirements analysis, and determining a rock-solid liquidity projection for two weeks out, based on purchasing, sales order and everything else available in the Simple Financials system, I finally was able to look at the navigation screen of the Ariba Working Capital Optimizer with opened eyes. The Treasurer knows what is needed, and when. The figures are entered there as simple as you please. And one click yields a paradise of invoice (if you have an excess and want to invest in some instant 1% and 2% discount opportunities among your suppliers) and receivables open items (if you’re short, and want to offer a little sweetener to some of your customers to pay you early, and literally finance your ongoing operations for you) that can be selected with a swipe of a finger. (You have a touch screen, don’t you?)

Maybe I’ve been a finance guy for too long, but Fruit Ninja has nothing on being able to select exactly what you need to make the most of your investible working capital, or reduce (or eliminate) your borrowing costs to the bank. Best of all, after you’ve chosen (collaboratively—it’s in the Cloud!) the items to settle with your buyers and suppliers, the FSN is there to expedite the transactions. Choose from a range of financial institutions—not just a single bank—and get the best terms and the best rates available.

I’ve seen the future, and it’s connected.

Putting Together the Puzzle of Payment Options

Coffee-break with GameChangers

What defines the current climate of payments? Bonnie D Graham, host of a recent SAP Game-Changers radiocast, lists three attributes:

• Risk
• Cost
• Ability to reconcile

Moderating a panel of guest experts, Graham identifies two choices left for those in this sphere: innovate to improve or accept the status quo and risk losing big. Panelists Tom Durkin, head of integrated channel solutions at Bank of America Merrill Lynch; Laurie McCauley, partner with Treasury Strategies; and Leonard Schwartz, director of solution management for the financial services network at SAP discuss the puzzle pieces that comprise next-generation financial services.

Discover a transformed banking industry

Corporations demand more than ever from their banks – especially following the 2008 financial crisis – but for the most part wish to remain bank agnostic. They want banks to take an omnichannel, customer-centric approach and break out of traditional silos.

The question, says Durkin, is how to “support that when you have a variety of clients that range from business banking type clients to the largest multinationals. [It is] certainly a challenge for any bank in any segment.” He goes on to assert that no corporation is truly “agnostic” in banking, but rather attempts to be independent from the technology systems.

Gain trust through enhanced payment visibility

Clients across the globe expect reliable, quick access to information, according to Durkin. They want to become more efficient in the accounts receivable process and the accounts payable process – getting all the information they need on a particular payment for a receivable account or determining if a supplier actually received the appropriate payment.

Rest easy with stronger data and payment security

“The security question is coming up more frequently,” says McCauley. “How do I know my data is secure? How do I go beyond two-factor authentication?”

Schwartz indicates that the other side of this issue is reliability. In case of a major cyberattack or even just some system downtime, it’s important to have a strategy in place. He suggests companies start by asking questions such as, “What are your alternate routes, what’s your disaster recovery plan? To me, it’s about figuring out how to use technology that evolves – both for reliability and to add extra layers of security.”

Navigate a new breed of payment providers

As technology has evolved, so have payment methods. The use of checks has plummeted in recent years. They may never disappear completely, but electronic payment methods are becoming more popular and seem to be the norm for tech-savvy millennials. Why wait for a check (and waste all that paper) when you can just hold your phone up to a scanner?

Synthesizing the comments of the show’s guests, Graham asserts that Amazon, PayPal, and Facebook are redefining what payment providers look like. McCauley includes Walmart in this new contingent as the company has an arrangement with MoneyGram to send Walmart-to-Walmart payments through the store.

Is it possible for so many puzzle pieces to support a quest for continued innovation? Listen to the full radiocast for more information.

The drive for real-time consolidations

From Steve Player, North America Program Director for the Beyond Budgeting Round Table (BBRT)

Our exploration of how technology has expanded the roles of CFOs has covered a lot of territory. Whenever I am facing tremendous change, I remember Stephen Covey’s advice “The key to the ability to change is a changeless sense of who you are, what you are about and what you value.”[i] So it is also with the roles of CFOs. When CFOs focus on key objectives, they can leverage process innovation to achieve amazing results. While technology enables us to reach out, it also improves the day-to-day work at the core of financial operations. A prime example is the move to real-time consolidations.

But I need to warn you, be prepared to break through the walls of resistance.

I provide this caution because many in finance are jaded by past systems that were built with IT tools that often look like they were invented in the Stone Age by comparison. I think that has to do with the historical role that CFOs played. Because the CFO historically provided the voice of reason and “prudent” investing, my experience has seen investments in finance related systems enhancements that were frequently delayed, deferred, or simply ignored. As a result, many finance teams still struggle with systems that are poorly integrated and require too much manual intervention.

Frankly, this is a waste that modern CFOs recognize must be eliminated if an organization is to have any chance of realizing the potential benefits available. Does your organization face manual reconciliations, repeated monthly systems intervention, duplicate data entry, and redundant maintenance of financial accounts? If so, you have likely turned your valuable finance talent into a team of data monkeys who spend most of the time just trying to make sure you are working with the right numbers. It is dumb stuff… and in finance you often need to simply begin with a pledge “to stop doing dumb stuff.”

Today’s technology enables real-time consolidations. Why is that important? Consider these reasons:

  1. Real-time consolidation allows the organization to eliminate batch mode processing. Finance processes are often a series of time based batches that spike work-loads near month, quarter, and annual year-ends.
  2. Real-time consolidation levels the work requiring fewer people and less overtime.
  3. Implementing real-time consolidation requires better technology integration that reduces cycle time by eliminating manual interfaces, redundancies and duplicate processing. This leaves more time for finance personnel to actually evaluate operations.
  4. Real-time consolidation provides rapid analysis of the impacts of debt covenants. Potential strategic changes such as acquisitions, mergers or spin-offs can be compared under different financial structures to see which provides the greatest flexibility and lowest capital cost.
  5. The ability to monitor a consolidated position enables deeper understanding of foreign currency exposures from both an income statement and cash flow perspective. This better supports effective treasury management.
  6. Real-time consolidation reduces planning time and frees the planning team to run more planning scenario simulations to further develop game plans for defending against risks or capturing opportunities.

The bottom line is real-time consolidation provides more time for finance to support operations and assist in improved decision making… and these are the type of benefits that CFOs have long sought.

Next week we examine how technology is changing two key outputs of finance – how we close and how we disclose.

[i] Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc., 1989, page 108

Steve Player